First Readings on Sudanese Identity (4)
Sudanese personality and demographic composition
Hatem Babeker Awad Al – Karim
The Sudanese personality before the events of 21 October 1964 was confined to the contradiction between modernity and traditionalism (originality and modernity). In this contradiction there were many positions and views. The analyzes were mixed between those who deny the existence of a Sudanese nation and a Sudanese personality, and those who recognize the existence of the Sudanese personality, Sudanese nation, It contains the values of national structure and social development. This is why this trend combines between calling for the use of elements of personality in social transformation and those calling for their exclusion and those who call for reviving them and strengthening their position within the ideological (Islamic, national and national) The confrontation between the supporters of modernity and modernism and the supporters of originality and traditionalism is the centerpiece of the thinking of the democratic national structure in Sudan and the multifaceted point of dispute and its intricate complexities and complexities. From this point, all positions that impose on each individual and each movement determine its position on the control of Western countries or of human civilization Or from religion, from science, from power or from the future. The division into two camps facing each other has its own vision of the past and the present, and its theory of reading Sudanese history, its concept of modernity, reason, rationality, its social and political slogans. The linkage of identity with religion eliminates the fact that population components are evolving as a consciousness of national identity and identity. The linking of modernity to contemporary science makes civilization a technical character and denies cultural privacy and the legacy of population formation. The issues of identity and modernity, religion, science, development, stagnation, preservation and progress have become the center of the crisis of Sudanese society, and its dispersion and imaginary solution at the same time.
This intellectual confrontation continued and went through many stages and took different forms according to the events and the great socio-political conditions experienced by the Sudan, the confrontation between Islamic and secular Salafism and the trend of socialist and capitalist development. The aftermath of this confrontation continued through an ethnic regional expression. Sudan returned to the point of formation after the implementation of the Islamic sharia law in September 1983 and was maintained by the parties after the 1985 uprising. The Umma Party, the Democratic Union Party and the Islamic Front confirmed the majority of the parliament of democracy and the collusion of the Marxist and nationalist left. Exploded in parallel with the declaration of Islamic law in May 1983. Hence we believe that it is necessary to study the structure of the population and its impact on the formation of the Sudanese personality.
The Sudanese personality emerged from a variety of geographic environments ranging from rivers and rivers to water and rainwater collection centers in the forest, desert and mountain. The population of the Sudan has gathered around the water sources. This region of the African continent continued to migrate from within and outside the continent to the characteristics of its life, Sudanese environments are responsible for the Sudanese civilization, Sudanese history and the Sudanese social structure. Despite the relative fusion, each environment has retained its distinctive characteristics, contributing to the formation of the Sudanese nation through cultural and social interaction. Sudanese and Sudanese personalities since the birth of the ancient Sudanese civilization have given and took all the environments of this optional federal root, but that the expatriate merged into the existing population structure, the Arabs and the Negroes who came to the land of Sudan merged into the existing components became part of the socio-cultural environment of the Sudanese population components that are originally In the process of fusion and fusion and the crystallization of the nation and the maturity of the Sudanese personality. Characterization of the incubating environments of the population components contributing to the crystallization of the Sudanese nation and the maturity of the Sudanese personality can be summarized in four environments:
* Nile environment from the borders of Egypt extends beyond the junction of the Nile and White and Blue include the island
* The poor savannah, desert and sub-Saharan environment in Kordofan and Darfur
* The Atbara River and the Red Sea Mountains
* The environment of southern Sudan with its Nile and tropical details
The center of Sudanese cultural history and the gateway to the north of the world, through which Christianity, Islam and Arabism entered the African depth. This part of Sudan is rooted in the roots of Africa. The first person to know the African religions is this place. Then move on to Christianity and then Islam. This component is manifest in the languages and relations and personality of this human being. In building the Sudanese character and modern Sudan. The Sudanese personality gained from it the Maawrian view of urbanization, industry, means of earning a living, and a vision of the self and the world.
Desert and sub-Saharan environment and savannah (Darfur and Kordofan)
The historical link between Kordofan and Darfur is old, connected and uninterrupted. Some of the population components reach linguistic interference with the Nubian north such as the Zaghawa, Midub and Fur, which confirms that they are the traces of the Kush civilization and migrated within the internal migrations and have infinite common denominators with the Nubian civilization. Also living in this environment are pastoral groups migrated from West and North Africa. These environments have a cultural contribution to the kingdoms of Fur, Spaniards, Masjid, Dajo, Masalit and Daegu. Islam is a spiritual bond and Arabic is a common communication tool.
The Atbara River and the Red Sea Mountains
This environment, which has been linked to the sea and is interacting with Nubia and Axum, is a long geographical environment extending from Halaib in the Egyptian border to the port of Aqiq in the Eritrean border. This environment is the strategic crossing point for Sudan and the African continent by sea.
Therefore, the inhabitants of this part of the Sudan were a genuine contributor to the formation of the Sudanese character and fought in all the battles of the Sudanese nation. They are in a permanent movement between the Nile and the Atbara River and the slopes of the Eastern and Western Red Sea Mountains.
* South Sudan environment
Southern Sudan has been affected by economic activity from the north and the trade movement from East Africa has affected Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia. The interrelationships between the Bahr el Ghazal and Darfur populations are as deep as those of the Upper Nile in Ethiopia as well as the tropical interferences in Kenya, Uganda and Congo. And the Anglican Anglican Prussian Churches, and influenced Islam from the north and east Africa.
All of these components touched modernity with the military campaign of Kitchener which took control of Sudan in 1899 imposing a colonial-style colonial military style clutch. The emergence of the Sudanese independent state in 1956, did not ease the intensity of the use of components to control, was unable to manage diversity in the first test was exposed to the fledgling Sudanese state exploded armed revolution in the south events of Torit 1955 raised a question Identity in the north and south became the Sudanese personality victim between the two polar poles and the Sudan entered into a political-military intellectual disorder and overlapped ideologies and intellectual methods. Each one makes his contribution. The position of Islam and Arabism became the cause of the Hour in the North, Gradually froze the confrontation of modernity and traditionalism confined to the position of the political movement in the position of Islam and the West and modernity. Thus, the conflict in the south has hindered the development of the nation’s crystallization and the maturity of the Sudanese personality.